Capital budgeting is used to plan for the acquisitions of other companies, for the development of new product lines of business, for the expansion of the existing production plants or for the replacement worn-out equipment, and in planning decisions on whether or not to enter a new arrest line, whether to buy or rent production facilities and any other investment project resulting in costs and revenues that are spread over a number of years.

Capital budgeting is the method used to assess a major investment or to see whether one option is better than another. There are several capital budgeting methods, each with advantages and disadvantages. In this article, we discuss the basic principle and the advantages and disadvantages of using the net present value technique and the internal rate of return technique.

Net present value (NAP) method

When using the net present value method of capital budgeting, one of the most important factors is the estimation of net cash flows from an investment.

The net cash flow is the difference between cash outflows and cash inflows over the life of the investment. First, cash flows should be calculated on an incremental basis, and include changes in operating cash flows and changes in investment cash flows. Second, cash flows must be measured on an after-tax basis. Third, non-cash expenses are also considered; for example, depreciation is an expense item but not a cash flow.

Example 1 NP Ltd is considering an initial investment of $100,000 in order to open a new production line for a new product.

The expected life of the production line is four years. Sales are estimated to be $100,000 during the first year and to increase by 10% per year until the fourth year. The variable costs of producing the product are 50% of sales and the additional fixed costs are $1 5,000 per year. The simplified straight-line depreciation method is used to calculate depreciation. NP Ltd requires an after-tax return of 40% and also expects to recover $10,000 of its working capital at the end of the fourth year.

The following gives the detailed information on the new product line: New product Initial investment $100,000 Salvage value $10,000 Expected life 4 years Annual operating costs Variable costs in the first year $50,000 Fixed costs $15,000 Sales during the first year The estimated cash flow from this investment are summarized as follows:

Estimated cash flow Year 1 o,oho 50,000 1 5,000 25,000 10,oho 4,000 6,000

Net cash flow Add: 3 121,000 60,500 20,500 8,200 12,300 4 133,100 66,550 26,550 10,620 1 5,930 31,000

Sales Less: Variable costs Depreciation

Profit before tax Less: Income tax Profit after tax Add: Depreciation 2 110,000 55,000 9,000 34,000 37,300 40,930 Recovery of working capital

Net cash flow in year 4 60,930

We need to assign a discount rate to evaluate each of the competing alternatives for a firm's capital to decide whether or not a firm should undertake an investment. The discount rate is estimated using the cost of capital of the investment to the firm. Net present value capital budgeting gives us the present value of the expected net cash flows from the investment, discounted at the firm's cost of capital, minus the investment of capital needed today.

For example, if NP Ltd expects a cost of capital of 12%, the net present value of the investment can be seen above, and the initial investment is $100,000, then the net present value of the new production line is NAP = $120,054. 68 - $100,000 = $20,054. 68 This investment can add $20,054. 68 to the value of NP Ltd, so NP Ltd should undertake this investment. We can use the net present value method to compare investments. The project with the highest net present value is the better alternative.

A disadvantage of the net present value technique is that the decision depends on the cost of capital: it is not easy to calculate this. The internal rate of return ORR) technique The internal rate of return technique is an alternative to the net present value technique. The internal rate of return on an investment is the discount rate at which the net present value of the investment is zero. The investment should be undertaken only if the internal rate of return on the investment exceeds the cost of capital to the firm.

An advantage of using the internal rate of return technique for capital budgeting is that the rate of return can be easily calculated and understood, especially by decision-makers who may not have a financial background.

Example 2 Using the information in example 1, we can calculate the internal rate of return to be 22. 05%. Since this exceeds the cost of capital, 12%, NP Ltd should undertake the investment.

Example 3 Suppose we have two mutually exclusive investments: investment A and investment B, which are independent investments. The internal rate of return and cost of capital are calculated for each below.

If the cost of capital is 12%, then both investment A ND B is acceptable because they both give a return greater than the cost of capital. In other words, the cost of capital is the minimum acceptable rate of return. Internal rate of return of two mutually exclusive investments Investment A 20. 30% Cost of capital, per year Internal rate of return, per year Investment B 22. 10%

Example 4 If we are forced to choose only one investment from example 3, we would choose investment B because this has a higher internal rate of return than investment A.

However, it is not enough to use only the internal rate of return technique to determine which is the best investment out of two or more mutually exclusive investments. We should also use the net present value method. The net present value and internal rate of return for the two mutually exclusive investments are shown below.

Capital budgeting is the method used to assess a major investment or to see whether one option is better than another. There are several capital budgeting methods, each with advantages and disadvantages. In this article, we discuss the basic principle and the advantages and disadvantages of using the net present value technique and the internal rate of return technique.

Net present value (NAP) method

When using the net present value method of capital budgeting, one of the most important factors is the estimation of net cash flows from an investment.

The net cash flow is the difference between cash outflows and cash inflows over the life of the investment. First, cash flows should be calculated on an incremental basis, and include changes in operating cash flows and changes in investment cash flows. Second, cash flows must be measured on an after-tax basis. Third, non-cash expenses are also considered; for example, depreciation is an expense item but not a cash flow.

Example 1 NP Ltd is considering an initial investment of $100,000 in order to open a new production line for a new product.

The expected life of the production line is four years. Sales are estimated to be $100,000 during the first year and to increase by 10% per year until the fourth year. The variable costs of producing the product are 50% of sales and the additional fixed costs are $1 5,000 per year. The simplified straight-line depreciation method is used to calculate depreciation. NP Ltd requires an after-tax return of 40% and also expects to recover $10,000 of its working capital at the end of the fourth year.

The following gives the detailed information on the new product line: New product Initial investment $100,000 Salvage value $10,000 Expected life 4 years Annual operating costs Variable costs in the first year $50,000 Fixed costs $15,000 Sales during the first year The estimated cash flow from this investment are summarized as follows:

Estimated cash flow Year 1 o,oho 50,000 1 5,000 25,000 10,oho 4,000 6,000

Net cash flow Add: 3 121,000 60,500 20,500 8,200 12,300 4 133,100 66,550 26,550 10,620 1 5,930 31,000

Sales Less: Variable costs Depreciation

Profit before tax Less: Income tax Profit after tax Add: Depreciation 2 110,000 55,000 9,000 34,000 37,300 40,930 Recovery of working capital

Net cash flow in year 4 60,930

We need to assign a discount rate to evaluate each of the competing alternatives for a firm's capital to decide whether or not a firm should undertake an investment. The discount rate is estimated using the cost of capital of the investment to the firm. Net present value capital budgeting gives us the present value of the expected net cash flows from the investment, discounted at the firm's cost of capital, minus the investment of capital needed today.

For example, if NP Ltd expects a cost of capital of 12%, the net present value of the investment can be seen above, and the initial investment is $100,000, then the net present value of the new production line is NAP = $120,054. 68 - $100,000 = $20,054. 68 This investment can add $20,054. 68 to the value of NP Ltd, so NP Ltd should undertake this investment. We can use the net present value method to compare investments. The project with the highest net present value is the better alternative.

A disadvantage of the net present value technique is that the decision depends on the cost of capital: it is not easy to calculate this. The internal rate of return ORR) technique The internal rate of return technique is an alternative to the net present value technique. The internal rate of return on an investment is the discount rate at which the net present value of the investment is zero. The investment should be undertaken only if the internal rate of return on the investment exceeds the cost of capital to the firm.

An advantage of using the internal rate of return technique for capital budgeting is that the rate of return can be easily calculated and understood, especially by decision-makers who may not have a financial background.

Example 2 Using the information in example 1, we can calculate the internal rate of return to be 22. 05%. Since this exceeds the cost of capital, 12%, NP Ltd should undertake the investment.

Example 3 Suppose we have two mutually exclusive investments: investment A and investment B, which are independent investments. The internal rate of return and cost of capital are calculated for each below.

If the cost of capital is 12%, then both investment A ND B is acceptable because they both give a return greater than the cost of capital. In other words, the cost of capital is the minimum acceptable rate of return. Internal rate of return of two mutually exclusive investments Investment A 20. 30% Cost of capital, per year Internal rate of return, per year Investment B 22. 10%

Example 4 If we are forced to choose only one investment from example 3, we would choose investment B because this has a higher internal rate of return than investment A.

However, it is not enough to use only the internal rate of return technique to determine which is the best investment out of two or more mutually exclusive investments. We should also use the net present value method. The net present value and internal rate of return for the two mutually exclusive investments are shown below.